Matching Features Questions đây là dạng bài yêu cầu các thí sinh nối một danh sách những sự lựa chọn với danh sách của một loạt mệnh đề. Các sự lựa chọn thường được để trong các ô là tên người thường là tên của các chuyên gia, nhà nghiên cứu hoặc nhà khoa học,…Những mệnh đề thường là các lý thuyết, sự phát hiện của các nghiên cứu, nới chốn, năm,…Những mệnh đề sẽ không giống y chang những gì có trong bài đọc, thường sẽ paraphrase thông tin từ bài đọc ra.
Chiến lược làm bài:
- Đọc các câu hỏi và tìm từ khóa – Tìm ý chung của mỗi mẩu tin và gạch chân từ khóa bất kỳ, tập trung vào tên (names), ngày tháng (dates); nơi chốn (places). Việc tìm từ đồng nghĩa thay vì tìm từ đúng chính xác trong câu hỏi sẽ giúp bạn chọn đáp án đúng hơn vì hầu hết bài đọc sẽ thay thế từ đồng nghĩa (không bắt buộc nhưng có thể là bước chuẩn bị hữu ích cho bạn làm tốt bài thi Reading).
- Tập trung vào các lựa chọn cho câu trả lời – Có bao nhiêu đáp án? Yêu cầu của đề bài cho bạn chọn bao nhiêu đáp án.
- Đọc lướt qua bài văn – bạn cần đọc nhanh và tìm thông tin. Khoanh tròn hoặc gạch chân các danh từ riêng trong các đáp án lựa chọn.
- Dò qua các đoạn văn và trả lời câu hỏi.
Venus in transit
On 8 June 2004, more than half the population of the world were treated to a rare astronomical event. For over six hours, the planet Venus steadily inched its way over the surface of the Sun. This “transit` of Venus was the first since 6 December l882. On that occasion, the American astronomer Professor Simon Newcomb led a party to South Africa to observe the event. They were based at a girls’ school, where – if is alleged – the combined forces of three schoolmistresses outperformed the professionals with the accuracy of their observations.
For centuries, transits of Venus have drawn explorers and astronomers alike to the four corners of the globe. And you can put it all down to the extraordinary polymath Edmond Halley. In November 1677, Halley observed a transit of the innermost planet Mercury, from the desolate island of St Helena in the South Pacific. .He realized that from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Suns disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-separated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observers position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to measure what was then the ultimate goal; the distance of the Earth from the Sun. This distance is known as the ‘astronomical unit` or AU.
Halley was aware that the AU was one of the most fundamental of all astronomical measurements. Johannes Kepler, in the early 17*h century, had shown that the distances of the planets from the Sun governed their orbital speeds, which were easily measurable. But no-one had found a way to calculate accurate distances to the planets from the Earth. The goal was to measure the AU; then, knowing the orbital speeds of all the other planets round the Sun, the scale of the Solar System would fall into place. However, Halley realized that Mercury was so far away that its parallax angle would be very difficult to determine. As Venus was closer to the Earth, its parallax angle would be larger and Halley worked out that by using Venus it would be possible to measure the Sun`s distance to 1 part in 500. But there was as problem: transits of Venus, unlike those of Mercury; are rare. occurring in pairs roughly eight years apart every hundred or so years. Nevertheless, he accurately predicted that Venus would cross the face of the Sun in both 1761 and 1769 – though he didn`t survive to see either.
Inspired by Halley’s suggestion of a way to pin down the scale of the Solar System, teams of British and French astronomers set out on expeditions to places as diverse as India and Siberia. But things weren’t helped by Britain and France being at war. The person who deserves most sympathy is the French astronomer Guillaume Le Gentil. He was thwarted by the fact that the British were besieging his observation site at Pondicherry in India. Fleeing on a French warship crossing the Indian Ocean, Le Gentil saw a wonderful transit – but the ship`s pitching and rolling ruled out any attempt at making accurate observations. Undaunted, he remained south of the equator, keeping himself busy by studying the islands of Mauritius and Madagascar before setting off to observe the next transit in the Philippines. Ironically after travelling nearly 50,000 kilometres, his view was clouded out at the last moment, a very dispiriting experience.
While the early transit timings were as precise as instruments would allow the measurements were dogged by the ‘black drop’ effect. When Venus begins to cross the Sun’s disc, it looks smeared not circular – which makes it difficult to establish timings. This is due to diffraction of light. The second problem is that Venus exhibits a halo of light when it is seen just outside the Sun’s disc. While this showed astronomers that Venus was surrounded by a thick layer of gases refracting sunlight around it, both effects made it impossible to obtain accurate timings.
But astronomers labored hard to analyze the results of these expeditions to observe Venus transits. Jonathan Franz Encke, Director of the Belin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close to todays value of 149,597,870 km, determined by radar, which has now superseded transits and all other methods in accuracy. The AU is a cosmic measuring rod, and the basis of how we scale the Universe today The parallax principle can be extended to measure the distances to the stars. If we look at a star in January – when Earth is at one point in its orbit – it will seem to be in a different position from where it appears six months later. Knowing the width of Earth`s orbit, the parallax shift lets astronomers calculate the distance.
June 2004’s transit of Venus was thus more of an astronomical spectacle than a scientifically important event. But such transits have
Look at the following statements (Questions 18-21) and the list of people below.
Match each statement with the correct person.
Write the correct letter A-D in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
1. He calculated the distance of the Sun from the Earth based on observations of Venus with a fair degree of accuracy. [ ]
2. He understood that the distance of the Sun from the Earth could be worked out by comparing observations of a transit. [ ]
3. He realised that the time taken by a planet to go round the Sun depends on its distance from the Sun. [ ]
4. He witnessed a Venus transit but was unable to make any calculations. [ ]
List of People
A Edmond Halley
B Johannes Kepler
C Guillaume Le Gentil
D Johann Franz Encke
1 2 3 4
Hướng dẫn giải
18. He calculated the distance of the sun from the Earth based on observations of Venus with a fair degree of accuracy
Trong đoạn F, tác giả chỉ ra rằng “Johann Franz Encke, Director of the Berlin Observatory, finally determined a value for the AU based on all these parallax measurements: 153,340,000 km. Reasonably accurate for the time, that is quite close todays value of 149,579,870 km.
The distance of the Sun from the Earth=the ÂU
With a fair degree of accuracy=reasonably accurate
=> đáp án: D
19. He understood that the distance of the Sun from the Earth could be worked out by comparing observations of a transit.
Trong đoạn B, “He (admon Hadley) realised that from different latitudes, the passage of the planet across the Sun’s disc would appear to differ. By timing the transit from two widely-seperated locations, teams of astronomers could calculate the parallax angle – the apparent difference in position of an astronomical body due to a difference in the observer’s position. Calculating this angle would allow astronomers to measure what was then the ultimate goal: the distance of the Earth from the Sun”
Work out=calculate, measure
=>đán án A
Các tips để làm bài hiệu quả:
Làm những câu dễ trước. Nếu bạn không thể tìm được câu trả lời, hãy để đó và chuyển đến câu tiếp theo và quay lại sau.
Để tìm ra tên người một cách nhanh chóng, đọc quét và gạch chân ngay khi thấy nó
Nghĩ về những từ đồng nghĩa có thể xuất hiện trong bài đọc. Ví dụ “to get well quickly” có thể xuất hiện trong bài với “to make a speedy recovery”.
Những cái tên có thể chỉ xuất hiện nhiều hơn một lần nên hãy kiểm tra thật cẩn thận.
Câu hỏi không theo trình tự của bài đọc bạn có thể tiến lùi giữa những đoạn văn, sử dụng kĩ năng đọc quét (scan) để tiết kiệm thời gian.